Tag Archives: sustainability

Vulnerability and Electric Cars, part II

Back by popular demand! Ha, just wishful thinking! The second half of my essay from my Level 3 Norwegian class this summer:

Tesla at the charger

ANALYSE AV ULEMPER VED ELKETRISKE BILER

Folk som er  imot el-biler kan hevde at resirkulering av batteriet i el-bilene utgjør en negativ faktor når man tenker på hvor mange og på mengden av forskjelige kjemikalier som er i bruk.  Om circa fem år kommer el-biler til å møte en ny utfordring med resirkulering og avhenting av kraftige batteripakker. Begrenset distanse kan bilene ikke kjøre uten å lade og vanskeligheter med å finne ladestasjoner på langturer kan virke nedslående for en sjåfør.  I tillegg kan det ta lang tid å lade opp batteriet fra et vanlig hjemmelading. Det finnes flere typer elektriske kilder som er i bruk, men mesteparten av elektrisiteten som er brukt for opplading kommer fra fossilt brensel. Statistikk fra den amerikanske el-bil Telsa, viser en oversikt som sier at  39 % kommer fra kull, 28 % fra gass, 19 % kjernekraft, 7 % vannkraft, 4 % vinnkraft og 1 % olje (Telsa Motor, Inc.2014:1).

Dårlig folkeskikk har utviklet seg og folk begynner å legge til seg uhøflige handlemåter når det gjelder å dele oppladingstasjoner. “Laderaseri” er det nyeste  uttrykket som gjelder i forhold til utålmodighet mot nabo og el-bileier ved ladestasjoner (Ingram 2014:2). Enkelte folk kan ha vanskeligheter med nye innretninger og nye virkemidler. Til tross for at man klarer å venne seg til ny teknologi, så er det mye å forholde seg til. Det blir til og med et nytt uttrykk oppfunnet på grunn av angsten man kan oppleve mellom ladestasjonene. “Rekkeviddeangst” ble en ny oppdagelse etter at en nybakt eier av en elektrisk bil skulle ut på lengre turer. Det går over etter at man blir mer vant til bilene sine og man lærer hvordan man må planlegge turene på forhånd (Ingram 2014:1).

Det kommer til å skje mye med utviklingen av elektriske biler i den nærmeste framtid. Patenter av el-biler har nylig blitt offentlig gjort og det kommer til å legge seg til rette for fortere og mer spennende utvikling.  Potensialet for forbedring innenfor mulighetene med teknologi er batterioppladingsmuligheter, varigheten av oppladete batterier, mengden av oppladingsstasjoner og gjenvinningsmuligheter for batteriene.

OPPSUMMERING

Med denne korte oversikten over fordeler og ulemper av el-biler kan man begynne å vurdere sin egen livstil, bevissthet for miljøet og grader av endringer vi kan venne oss til med tanke på en verden med bærekraftig kommunikasjon. Endringer med bilene vi kjører er en av mange vaner  og livsstiler vi må tenke gjennom for å leve på en mer langsiktig og bærekraftig måte. Kortsiktige kostnader må overveies mot langsiktig ødeleggelse for å ikke bruke el-biler. Har vi lyst til å begynne med små skritt og gjøre en bevisst endring i forhold til valg av kjøretøyet og ta vårt ansvar, eller skal vi la den neste generasjonen ta ansvaret for nye oppryddingløsninger og fremtidige alternativer? 

KILDER

Brundtland-rapporten; 1987:  “Our Common Future.”  Hentet fra  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Common_Future  (Brundtland: 1986)

Gordon, Jacob; 2011:  “5 Concerns About Electric-Car Batteries”  Hentet fra http://editorial.autos.msn.com/article.aspx?cp-documentid=1176838&page=2  (Gordon 2011:1)

Ingram, Antony; 2014: “Will ‘Charge Rage’ Join ‘Range Anixiety’ As Electric-Car Owner Emotion?”  Hentet fra  https://autos.yahoo.com/news/39-charge-rage-39-join-39-range-anxiety-120012880.html  (Ingram 2014:1-2)

Randi Hjorthol og Jon Inge Lian; 2004: “Samfunnsmessige trender – betydning for

mobilitet og transport i storbysamfunnet”  TØI-rapport Oslo 2004  (Hjorthol og Lian 2004:1)

Shahan, Zachary; April 4, 2014: “Tesla has sold more cars than Ford in Norway in 2014” Hentet fra  http://www.treehugger.com/cars/tesla-norway-sales-ford.html  (Shahan 2014:1)

Tesla Motors, Inc.; 2014: “Your questions answered”  Hentet fra  http://www.teslamotors.com/goelectric#charging  (Telsa Motor, Inc.2014:1)

What’s happening in the real world?

I sometimes wonder if CSR (corporate social responsibility) is just a passing trend? The terminology/jargon has been spreading like wildfire over the last few years. Here is an article that I would like to share. I have copied and linked from the Education Post. Please visit the website for more interesting business related topics.

The rise of CSR in business education

In little over a decade, businesses have gone from seeing corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes and environmental stewardship as, at best, desirable add-ons to regarding them as central to strategic planning.

Linda Livingstone

“Early on, this movement was probably very much driven by individuals who had a personal passion,” says Linda Livingstone, dean of the Graziadio School of Business at Pepperdine University, and vice chair of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International. “Some of them created their own companies around that passion, whereas others brought it into the companies they were part of. But I think as it has developed and become more widespread, companies began to realise it can also be good for business and it can be profitable.” Some businesses are still accused of “greenwashing” – misleading PR exercises where they spend more on advertising their environmental friendliness than on actual sound practices. Such deceptions, though, are increasingly counter-productive.

Raymond Fisman

“There is a paradox here,” says Raymond Fisman, director of the social enterprise programme at Columbia Business School. “If consumers and/or employees get the sense that it is just about making more money, CSR loses its efficacy in bolstering the company’s image – and its profits.” As organisations and consumers get wiser to the benefits of genuine initiatives in this area, business schools are also recognising this development in their MBA programmes. “There was no social enterprise programme when I arrived at Columbia a dozen or so years ago,” says Fisman. “Now it is a major presence at the school. That should give you a sense of how attitudes have changed.”

Nikolai Sobolev

Nikolai Sobolev, a recent MBA graduate at Pepperdine University, focused on entrepreneurship and took the certificate in socially, ethically and environmentally responsible (SEER) business. He was already committed to social responsibility and sustainability, but wanted to lean more from the best, in this case Dr Michael Crooke, the former CEO of Patagonia who leads the university’s SEER programme. It focuses on profitability and quality products along with CSR and environmental stewardship

“I had seen CSR as stand-alone, one-off initiatives such as charitable contributions and didn’t see social or environmental initiatives as part of an overall business strategy,” Sobolev says. “Obviously, I knew about companies where a social mission is embedded in the fabric of their business, but I didn’t know that companies which build their business strategy on a foundation of corporate social responsibility can strategise better in a competitive market place.” However, integrating all these elements into an effective business plan is no simple task. “The closer you can get to the sweet spot, where these components come together, the better off you’re going to be in the long run,” Livingstone says. “But we teach students about the trade-off. For long-term sustainability, in financial terms and in other ways, you really need to think about all of those elements. We see it as an integrated strategy; you really can’t think about them independent of one another anymore.”

Since the SEER programme first began at Pepperdine, there are clear signs that student concern about concepts like environmental sustainability has grown substantially. “In the last five years or so, issues around sustainability and a global perspective have become much more important to our students,” Livingstone says. “They have really pushed us to do more within our programme. They are very proactive.” Fisman echoes those views, having noticed a major change in the way students entering MBA programmes think about “green” goals and how business can benefit society. “But there is still an awful lot of fuzzy talk about doing good in the corporate world,” Fisman says. “I really think people [want to see] companies that can show them a clear case of combining social progress with business.”

Recent changes to the AACSB’s core values and guiding principles for business programmes have added a commitment to environmental sustainability and CSR to the criteria. Currently, the association has more than 670 accredited institutions in nearly 50 countries and territories. “It is a natural progression given the trend [in the business world] in the last five years or so,” says Eileen Peacock, senior vice president and chief officer of AACSB Asia. “The Enron disaster had an impact and, following the financial crisis, we saw the major schools looking at their MBA programmes and wondering is this our fault or is it inbred in people to start with.”

Peacock Eileen

Because of business schools’ differing goals, Peacock sees the changes in eligibility standards as a background requirement rather than a demand to make specific amendments to curriculum content or policies. Though Pepperdine may in some ways be ahead of this curve, Livingstone does think changes in the AACSB standards will have an effect. “The mission in our business school is to develop value-centred business leaders and to advance responsible business practice,” she says. “So, to some extent, these standards are embedded in who we are. But I do think the standards will make us think a bit more systematically about what we are doing. No matter what we teach our students, in three to five years from now much of that will be obsolete. So passing on knowledge isn’t as important as teaching them how to think and of the need to continually learn.”JOHN BRENNAN
JUNE 7, 2013

“TOMORROW’S CHILD” – The business logic of sustainability

The business logic of sustainabilityAt his carpet company, Ray Anderson has increased sales and doubled profits while turning the traditional “take / make / waste” industrial system on its head. In a gentle, understated way, he shares a powerful vision for sustainable commerce.

RADICAL CHANGE or DISRUPTIVE CHANGE?

Here is an excerpt from a audio transcript on the two different perspectives of what drives change in behavior concerning energy alternatives.  I would love for you to let me know what you think about this topic! 

 

RADICAL CHANGE VS DISRUPTIVE CHANGE – Dr Steve Cayzer & Dr Carolyn Hayles

“…Well, in energy, I think we can probably put something in all of those four quadrants that we’ve talked about. In the incremental and sustaining quadrant, the bottom left quadrant, I would put improvements in efficiency of the internal combustion engine that powers our cars.

You see, over the past few decades, people have been making cars more efficient in terms of the amount of fuel that they need to travel. But this hasn’t fundamentally changed the architecture of the internal combustion engine nor has it changed our relationship with our vehicles.

That’s not to say it isn’t important. And in fact, those sorts of innovations are the bulk of most innovations anywhere.

But up at the radical end, I would argue you could put carbon capture and storage. This, as you probably know, is a technology that attempts to capture the harmful emissions from producing our energy from coal.

It’s radical because it’s still in development. It hasn’t been deployed to scale but it has huge potential. But it’s actually sustaining because it doesn’t actually change the structure of the coal industry nor the way in which we use energy that’s generated from coal.

Now diametrically opposed to that, I would argue something close to what Carolyn’s been talking about is the– just turning down your thermostat. What could be easier than that? It is almost the opposite of radical. But I would argue that just as we’ve been talking about with passive houses and people getting used to them, I’d argue that that is actually quite disruptive because it requires behavioural change.

It requires people to change the way that they live in their house. And as I talked about in Week Two, behaviour change is perhaps one of the most difficult sustainability challenges.

So is there something that’s both radical and disruptive in terms of energy?

Well, I would argue that what might fit up there is the European super grid because, if you think about that, the notion here is that we can have energy across Europe generated from renewable sources, primarily renewable sources, but of course, it overcomes the disadvantages of renewables being intermittent. So it’s not always windy where you want the energy but it’ll be windy somewhere in Europe. So you could export say wind from northern Scotland or perhaps some solar power from southern Spain to the areas that it’s needed.

But that’s quite radical in the sense of long-distance transmission of energy, perhaps energy storage, smart grids, not to mention all the political challenges. And it’s also, I would argue, disruptive because it changes the way that energy markets work, both nationally and all across the continent up Europe.

So I think we can sum up, can’t we, by saying that, broadly speaking, radical change requires technical innovation. But disruptive change requires market innovation.

Yes, and we’ve looked at both radical and disruptive change in housing and energy.”

 

© 2014 University of Bath 2,   Audio Transcript  https://ugc.futurelearn.com/uploads/related_file/file/2943/9eeda0bbc6e60997ee276e68e2b95ee7-SP4_4_3.pdf