The seismic rate in Oklahoma is about 600 times greater than it was before 2008, around the time dewatering started in the state.
Back by popular demand! Ha, just wishful thinking! The second half of my essay from my Level 3 Norwegian class this summer:
ANALYSE AV ULEMPER VED ELKETRISKE BILER
Folk som er imot el-biler kan hevde at resirkulering av batteriet i el-bilene utgjør en negativ faktor når man tenker på hvor mange og på mengden av forskjelige kjemikalier som er i bruk. Om circa fem år kommer el-biler til å møte en ny utfordring med resirkulering og avhenting av kraftige batteripakker. Begrenset distanse kan bilene ikke kjøre uten å lade og vanskeligheter med å finne ladestasjoner på langturer kan virke nedslående for en sjåfør. I tillegg kan det ta lang tid å lade opp batteriet fra et vanlig hjemmelading. Det finnes flere typer elektriske kilder som er i bruk, men mesteparten av elektrisiteten som er brukt for opplading kommer fra fossilt brensel. Statistikk fra den amerikanske el-bil Telsa, viser en oversikt som sier at 39 % kommer fra kull, 28 % fra gass, 19 % kjernekraft, 7 % vannkraft, 4 % vinnkraft og 1 % olje (Telsa Motor, Inc.2014:1).
Dårlig folkeskikk har utviklet seg og folk begynner å legge til seg uhøflige handlemåter når det gjelder å dele oppladingstasjoner. “Laderaseri” er det nyeste uttrykket som gjelder i forhold til utålmodighet mot nabo og el-bileier ved ladestasjoner (Ingram 2014:2). Enkelte folk kan ha vanskeligheter med nye innretninger og nye virkemidler. Til tross for at man klarer å venne seg til ny teknologi, så er det mye å forholde seg til. Det blir til og med et nytt uttrykk oppfunnet på grunn av angsten man kan oppleve mellom ladestasjonene. “Rekkeviddeangst” ble en ny oppdagelse etter at en nybakt eier av en elektrisk bil skulle ut på lengre turer. Det går over etter at man blir mer vant til bilene sine og man lærer hvordan man må planlegge turene på forhånd (Ingram 2014:1).
Det kommer til å skje mye med utviklingen av elektriske biler i den nærmeste framtid. Patenter av el-biler har nylig blitt offentlig gjort og det kommer til å legge seg til rette for fortere og mer spennende utvikling. Potensialet for forbedring innenfor mulighetene med teknologi er batterioppladingsmuligheter, varigheten av oppladete batterier, mengden av oppladingsstasjoner og gjenvinningsmuligheter for batteriene.
Med denne korte oversikten over fordeler og ulemper av el-biler kan man begynne å vurdere sin egen livstil, bevissthet for miljøet og grader av endringer vi kan venne oss til med tanke på en verden med bærekraftig kommunikasjon. Endringer med bilene vi kjører er en av mange vaner og livsstiler vi må tenke gjennom for å leve på en mer langsiktig og bærekraftig måte. Kortsiktige kostnader må overveies mot langsiktig ødeleggelse for å ikke bruke el-biler. Har vi lyst til å begynne med små skritt og gjøre en bevisst endring i forhold til valg av kjøretøyet og ta vårt ansvar, eller skal vi la den neste generasjonen ta ansvaret for nye oppryddingløsninger og fremtidige alternativer?
Brundtland-rapporten; 1987: “Our Common Future.” Hentet fra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Common_Future (Brundtland: 1986)
Gordon, Jacob; 2011: “5 Concerns About Electric-Car Batteries” Hentet fra http://editorial.autos.msn.com/article.aspx?cp-documentid=1176838&page=2 (Gordon 2011:1)
Ingram, Antony; 2014: “Will ‘Charge Rage’ Join ‘Range Anixiety’ As Electric-Car Owner Emotion?” Hentet fra https://autos.yahoo.com/news/39-charge-rage-39-join-39-range-anxiety-120012880.html (Ingram 2014:1-2)
Randi Hjorthol og Jon Inge Lian; 2004: “Samfunnsmessige trender – betydning for
mobilitet og transport i storbysamfunnet” TØI-rapport Oslo 2004 (Hjorthol og Lian 2004:1)
Shahan, Zachary; April 4, 2014: “Tesla has sold more cars than Ford in Norway in 2014” Hentet fra http://www.treehugger.com/cars/tesla-norway-sales-ford.html (Shahan 2014:1)
Tesla Motors, Inc.; 2014: “Your questions answered” Hentet fra http://www.teslamotors.com/goelectric#charging (Telsa Motor, Inc.2014:1)
Here is an excerpt from a audio transcript on the two different perspectives of what drives change in behavior concerning energy alternatives. I would love for you to let me know what you think about this topic!
RADICAL CHANGE VS DISRUPTIVE CHANGE – Dr Steve Cayzer & Dr Carolyn Hayles
“…Well, in energy, I think we can probably put something in all of those four quadrants that we’ve talked about. In the incremental and sustaining quadrant, the bottom left quadrant, I would put improvements in efficiency of the internal combustion engine that powers our cars.
You see, over the past few decades, people have been making cars more efficient in terms of the amount of fuel that they need to travel. But this hasn’t fundamentally changed the architecture of the internal combustion engine nor has it changed our relationship with our vehicles.
That’s not to say it isn’t important. And in fact, those sorts of innovations are the bulk of most innovations anywhere.
But up at the radical end, I would argue you could put carbon capture and storage. This, as you probably know, is a technology that attempts to capture the harmful emissions from producing our energy from coal.
It’s radical because it’s still in development. It hasn’t been deployed to scale but it has huge potential. But it’s actually sustaining because it doesn’t actually change the structure of the coal industry nor the way in which we use energy that’s generated from coal.
Now diametrically opposed to that, I would argue something close to what Carolyn’s been talking about is the– just turning down your thermostat. What could be easier than that? It is almost the opposite of radical. But I would argue that just as we’ve been talking about with passive houses and people getting used to them, I’d argue that that is actually quite disruptive because it requires behavioural change.
It requires people to change the way that they live in their house. And as I talked about in Week Two, behaviour change is perhaps one of the most difficult sustainability challenges.
So is there something that’s both radical and disruptive in terms of energy?
Well, I would argue that what might fit up there is the European super grid because, if you think about that, the notion here is that we can have energy across Europe generated from renewable sources, primarily renewable sources, but of course, it overcomes the disadvantages of renewables being intermittent. So it’s not always windy where you want the energy but it’ll be windy somewhere in Europe. So you could export say wind from northern Scotland or perhaps some solar power from southern Spain to the areas that it’s needed.
But that’s quite radical in the sense of long-distance transmission of energy, perhaps energy storage, smart grids, not to mention all the political challenges. And it’s also, I would argue, disruptive because it changes the way that energy markets work, both nationally and all across the continent up Europe.
So I think we can sum up, can’t we, by saying that, broadly speaking, radical change requires technical innovation. But disruptive change requires market innovation.
Yes, and we’ve looked at both radical and disruptive change in housing and energy.”
© 2014 University of Bath 2, Audio Transcript https://ugc.futurelearn.com/uploads/related_file/file/2943/9eeda0bbc6e60997ee276e68e2b95ee7-SP4_4_3.pdf
That’s exactly what I was asking myself last week as I enter the conference hall to find a seat in a group of strangers. Luckily I’m not shy…and I bumped into a friend of a friend right as I was walking in to the conference. I was introduced to some other very fascinating attendees! I got to try GoogleGlass! I was encouraged to become more familiar with Google+ (and no this is not paid for by Google! ;o) and I was very impressed with the diversity of the guest speakers.
So why was I there? I asked my self these repeatedly as my husband and I drove to Stavanger Norway to attend the first annual EnerWE Energy Communication Conference. After a life spent with a man that was was a Ph.D. in Petroleum Engineering, I had picked up a little along the way, but I was obviously conflicted about the potential involvement with an business sector that, I felt like was in complete conflict with my personal values and interest. After all, I started a blog a year ago to keep myself busy while waiting for my Norwegian version of a Green Card for living and working permission focused on Fairly Traded and Ethical Business! Wow. I felt like I was deviating way off track on this excursion.
Why was I venturing into a market segment that was so “opposite” of my blog focus and my value center? Why would I want to become associated with a business segment that struggled with bad PR? Environmental catastrophes and negative social perceptions at every turn? Then I reflected on something my father once said why discussing politics and why I had chosen to change my political party. I felt like there was no reason for me to be affiliated with an organization that was moving in a direction that was very different than my core values. But he said, “Why not become more involved and try to make a difference? Why not stick it out and be a positive support to other people that may feel the same way that you do but don’t know how to change the problems?” Then I understood that maybe there is a demand for more Social Responsibility in this market segment as well? The interest in the dynamic prevalence and growing marketing channel of Social Media was the initial reason for my participation in the conference.
I was fascinated as we learned from the EnerWE conference that the industry is aware of it’s challenges and some companies are focusing on addressing the issue. Øyvind Ihlen, Professor at the University I Oslo, drove right to the most important concern for me and apparently a growing concern for the Social and Environmentally aware energy companies: “The Elephant in the Room for Energy sector:
Climate and Environmental concerns of neighboring communities. How to improve public relations? Bringing High tech oil and gas industry to the level of local communities and individual neighbors..”
BINGO! There it was! My theory was confirmed. My mission was defined and my purpose was justified!
Overall I would say the conference was well worth my time to learn more about the North Sea Petroleum and Energy companies and how they perceive themselves. But best of all was the journey the people that I met along the way!
This morning I was greeted by a tweet that I and another conference attendee had won the EnerWe Instagram contest! WaaHooo! Check it out on Twitter.
You can find other pics from the conference at #enerWe on Instagram.